On January 1 this year, the forth automobile fuel consumption limit standard began to be carried out. The standard regulates that by 2020, average oil consumption of all of automobiles must be reduced from 6.9L/100km on the third stage to 5.0L/100km on the forth stage. MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology) also launches guidance standards of stage consumption reduction. From 2016 to 2020, fuel consumption should be respectively reduced to 6.7L, 6.4L, 6L, 5.5L and 5L per one hundred kilometers. In terms of current situations, plenty of auto manufacturers cannot be qualified smoothly. So, facing with new standards, besides revolution on fuel technologies, reducing the weight of the whole vehicle is also an effective choice. Based on estimated data, when the weight of vehicle is reduced by per 100kg, fuel consumption is reduced by 0.3-0.6L per 100km. Therefore, using cast aluminum alloy and other light materials have become the first choice for auto manufacturers.
Made in China 2025 also has the conclusion that light weight will be the common key direction which auto industry should break through.
As material for reducing weight of auto, aluminum alloy cast is the best choice undoubtedly. Firstly, amount of parts on automobile can be replaced by using aluminum. Experts calculate that the whole vehicle weight can be reduced by 125% after using aluminum alloy.
Global famous auto manufacturers such Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen and Audi meet the requirements of new standard through reducing automobile weight and decreasing oil consumption further. More aluminum alloy materials are applied on car door and engine on new automobile models. Moreover, mature aluminum alloy die casting technology and good recoverability of the material are the main factors that auto manufacturers choose aluminum alloy cast.
It is estimated that by 2020, to accord with new standard, every automobile will be equipped with 180kg of aluminum alloy cast. The amount of aluminum alloy on automobile will grow significantly, which will bring a large number of orders of castings to die casting manufacturers and drive them to develop.
But, for die casting enterprises, both opportunities and challenges exist. On the one hand, demands of auto manufacturing enterprises are growing. On the other hand, it puts forward new requirements for quality and technical index of cast at the same time.
Castings used for automobile mainly include gravity casting parts, low pressure die casting parts and other special casting parts. As is well-known, die casting
is a complicated process which combines flow, heat transfer and mass transfer, requiring long-term experience accumulation so that die casting temperature, die casting mold filling, solidification and flow regime choosing of every parts can be well maintained. Once error occurs in a link, uneven stress distribution, cracks and shrinkage cavity on cast may be caused so that the part cannot meet requirements, resulting in economic losses.
2016-2020 is the important period of the 13th-Five-Year-Plan. It is also the critical stage for Made in China 2025. Die casting enterprises should make full use of relative policies, holding industrial opportunities, enhancing technical innovation, realizing updating and promoting themselves to develop.