Basic Knowledge of Brass (Part Three)
Posted: 01/30/2018 03:41:45  Hits: 25
Tin Brass
Adding tin to brass can significantly improve heat resistance of the alloy, which can especially improve resistance of the alloy to sea water. Therefore, tin brass can also be called admiralty brass.

Tin can dissolve in the copper-based solid solution, playing a role of strengthening the solid solution. However, with the increasing tin content, the brittle r phase (the CuZnSn compound) appears in the alloy, which is not good for plastic deformation of the alloy. Thus, the tin content in tin brass is usually between 0.5% and 1.5%. The commonly used tin brass include HSn70-1, HSn62-1 and HSn60-1. HSn70-1 is α alloy, which has high plasticity. It can be processed by cold or hot press working. The other two alloys have the α plus β two-phase structure, and a small number of r phases often appear. The other two alloys have low plasticity at room temperature, and they can only be deformed in the hot state.

Manganese Brass
Manganese has greater solubility in the solid brass. Adding 1% to 4% manganese to brass can significantly improve strength and corrosion resistance of the alloy without reducing its plasticity. Manganese brass has the α plus β structure. Manganese brass has pretty good processability in the cold and hot state.

Iron Brass
Iron precipitates as the particle of the iron-rich phase in the iron brass. Iron as the crystal nucleus can refine grains and prevent recrystallized grains from growing so as to improve mechanical properties and processing properties of the alloy. The iron content in iron brass is usually below 1.5%, and iron brass has the α plus β structure, which make iron brass have good strength and toughness, good plasticity at high temperature and deformation also in the cold state. The common grade is the Hfe59-1-1.

Nickel Brass
Nickel and copper can form a continuous solid solution, which can significantly expand the α region. Adding nickel to brass can significantly improve corrosion resistance of brass in the atmosphere and seawater. Nickel can also increase recrystallization temperature of brass and facilitate the formation of smaller grains. HNi65-5 nickel brass has a single phase α structure, which makes nickel brass have good plasticity at room temperature and be deformed in the hot state. However, the content of lead impurities must be strictly controlled, or it will seriously deteriorate the thermal processing properties of the alloy.

Different Grades for Brass in Different Countries
International Standard
The United States
H96 CuZn5 2.022 CuZn5 CW500L CuZn5 C21000 C2100
H90 CuZn10 2.023 CuZn10 CW501L CuZn10 C22000 C2200
H85 CuZn15 2.024 CuZn15 CW502L CuZn15 C23000 C2300
H80 CuZn20 2.025 CuZn20 CW503L CuZn20 C24000 C2400
H70 CuZn30 2.0265 CuZn30 CW505L CuZn30 C26000 C2600
H68 CuZn33 2.028 CuZn33 CW506L CuZn35 C26800 C2680
H65 CuZn36 2.0335 CuZn36 CW507L CuZn35 C27000 C2700
H63 CuZn37 2.0321 CuZn37 CW508L CuZn37 C27200 C2720
HPb63-3 CuZn36Pb1.5 2.0331 CuZn35Pb1 CW600N CuZn35Pb1 C34000 C3501
HPb63-3 CuZn36Pb1.5 2.0331 CuZn35Pb2 CW601N CuZn34Pb2 C34200
H62 CuZn40 2.036 CuZn40 CW509N CuZn40 C28000 C3712
H60 CuZn38Pb1.5 2.0371 CuZn38Pb2 CW608N CuZn37Pb2 C35000
HPb63-3 CuZn36Pb3 2.0375 CuZn36Pb3 CW603N CuZn36Pb3 C36000 C3601
HPb59-1 CuZn39Pb2 2.038 CuZn39Pb2 CW612N CuZn38Pb2 C37700 C3771
HPb58-2.5 CuZn39Pb3 2.0401 CuZn39Pb3 CW614N CuZn39Pb3 C38500 C3603
CuZn40Pb2 2.0402 CuZn40Pb2 CW617N CuZn40Pb2 C38000 C3771
CuZn28Sn1 2.047 CuZn28Sn1As CW706R CuZn28Sn1 C68800 C4430
CuZn31Si1 2.049 CuZn31Si1 CW708R CuZn31Si1 C44300
CuZn20Al2 2.046 CuZn20Al2 CW702R CuZn20Al2 C68700 C6870

Chemical Composition
China Japan Germany The United States
H62 C2720 CuZn40 C27400 CZ109
H65 C2680 CuZn35 C27000 CZ107
H68 C2600 CuZn30 C26000 CZ106
Japanese Grades
Grade Main composition The content of the impurities %  Total impurities %  The corresponding Chinese grade
Cu Zn Pb Fe Ni
C2720 62-64 Balance ≤0.07 ≤0.07 -- -- HP62
C2700 63-67 Balance ≤0.05 ≤0.05 -- -- H65
C2680 64-68 Balance ≤0.05 ≤0.05 Bi≤0.002 Sb≤0.005 H68
C2600 68.5-71.5 Balance ≤0.05 ≤0.05 -- -- H70
American Grades
Grade Main composition   The content of the impurities % Total impurities % The corresponding Chinese grade
Cu Zn Pb Fe Ni
C27400 61-64 Balance ≤0.10 ≤0.05 -- -- HP62
C27000 63-68.5 Balance ≤0.10 ≤0.07 -- -- H65
C26000 68.5-71.5 Balance ≤0.07 ≤0.05 -- -- H68, H70

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